Adam Back (born July 1970) is a British cryptographer and cypherpunk. He is the CEO of Blockstream, which he co-founded in 2014. He invented Hashcash, which is used in the Bitcoin mining process.
Back was born in London, England, in July 1970.
His first computer was a  Sinclair ZX81. He taught himself Basic, and spent his time reverse engineering video games, finding decryption keys in software packages. He completed his A levels in advanced mathematics, physics and economics.
He has a
computer science PhD in distributed systems from the University of Exeter. During his PhD, Back worked with  compilers to make use of parallel computers in a semi automated way. He became interested in pgp encryption, electronic cash and remailers. He spent two thirds of his time working with encryption. After graduation, Adam spent his career as a consultant in start ups and larger companies in applied cryptography, writing cryptographic libraries, designing, reviewing and breaking other people's cryptographic protocols.
Cryptography software [ edit ]
Back's "Munitions" T-shirt featured computer code that was considered to be a weapon in the United States.
Back is a pioneer of early digital asset research similarly as
Wei Dai, David Chaum, and Hal Finney.  In 1997, Back invented  Hashcash. A similar system is used in  bitcoin.  
He also implemented
credlib,  a library that implements the credential systems of  Stefan Brands and David Chaum.
He was the first to describe the "non-interactive forward secrecy"
  security property for email and to observe that any  identity based encryption scheme can be used to provide non-interactive forward secrecy.
He is also known for promoting the use of ultra-compact code with his 2-line
and 3-line  RSA in Perl    signature file and non-exportable T-shirts  to protest  cryptography export regulations.
Back was one of the first two people to receive an email from
Satoshi Nakamoto.  In 2016, the  Financial Times cited Back as a potential Nakamoto candidate, along with Nick Szabo and Hal Finney.  Craig Wright had sued Back for stating that Wright was not Nakamoto, with Wright subsequently dropping the suit.
Back has promoted the use of satellites and mesh networks to broadcast and receive bitcoin transactions, as a backup for the traditional internet.
Business career [ edit ]
On 3 October 2016, Back was appointed as CEO of
References [ edit ]
Singh, Rachna (2019). . Bloomsbury Publishing. The Bitcoin Saga: A Mixed Montage ISBN . 978-9388271837
^ a b c
Kharif, Olga (2 June 2020). "Latest Satoshi Nakamoto Candidate Buying Bitcoin No Matter What". Bloomberg . Retrieved . 3 June 2020
"Proof of Work - An interview with Adam Back (Blockstream)".
Leising, Matthew (30 June 2018). "Is Bitcoin Creator Writing a Book? Cryptic Note Indicates Yes". Bloomberg . Retrieved . 13 May 2020
Bustillos, Maria (25 August 2015). "Inside the Fight Over Bitcoin's Future". New Yorker . Retrieved . 13 May 2020
Narayanan, Arvind; Bonneau, Joseph; Felten, Edward; Miller, Andrew; Goldfeder, Steven (2016). Bitcoin and Cryptocurrency Technologies: A Comprehensive Introduction. Princeton and Oxford: Princeton University Press. ISBN . 978-0-691-17169-2
Shaw, Jessica Marmor (8 January 2018). "Bitcoin and cryptocurrency on Twitter: The most important people to follow". Marketwatch . Retrieved . 14 May 2020
"Bitcoin: A Peer-to-Peer Electronic Cash System" (PDF).
Casey, Michael J. (22 October 2020). "BitBeat: Bitcoin Coding Allstars Launch Sidechains Project to Boost Innovation". WSJBlogs . Retrieved . 14 May 2020
Frisby, Dominic (2015). "Footnotes". Bitcoin: The future of money?. Unbound. ISBN . 978-1783521029
"credlib - Credential Library". cypherspace.org.
Boyd, Colin. "A Modern View on Forward Security" (PDF). IACR . Retrieved . 14 May 2020
Anderson, Ross (2002). "Two remarks on public key cryptology" (PDF). Cambridge University . Retrieved . 14 May 2020
"Non-Interactive Forward Secrecy". cypherspace.org.
Salomon, David (2003). "Secure Programming with Perl". Data Privacy and Security. Springer. p. 200. ISBN . 9781441918161
Judmayer, Aljosha; Stifter, Nicholas (2017). "Before bitcoin". Blocks and Chains: Introduction to Bitcoin, Cryptocurrencies, and Their Consensus Mechanisms (Synthesis Lectures on Information Security, Privacy, and Tru). Morgan & Claypool Publishers. p. 17. ISBN . 9781627057165
"export-a-crypto-system sig". cypherspace.org.
Sinn, Richard (2007). "Secure Programming with Perl". Software Security Technologies. Cengage Learning. p. 366. ISBN . 9781428319455
Blanchette, Jean-François (2012). "On the brink of revolution". Burdens of Proof: Cryptographic Culture and Evidence Law in the Age of Electronic Documents. MIT Press. p. 50. ISBN . 978-0262017510
"Munitions T-shirt". cypherspace.org.
Brunton, Finn (2019). "On the brink of revolution". Digital Cash: The Unknown History of the Anarchists, Utopians, and Technologists Who Created Cryptocurrency. Princeton Press. p. 97. ISBN . 9780691179490
RATLIFF, EVAN (16 July 2019). "Was Bitcoin Created by This International Drug Dealer? Maybe!". Wired . Retrieved . 13 May 2020
Kaminska, Izabella (7 May 2016). "Bitcoin: Identity crisis". Financial Times . Retrieved . 4 June 2020
del Castillo, Michael (17 December 2018). "Who Needs Verizon? Blockstream Broadcasts Entire Bitcoin Blockchain From Space". Forbes . Retrieved . 13 May 2020
^ Blockstream (3 October 2016). "
Blockstream Appoints Hashcash Inventor Dr. Adam Back as CEO". PR News Wire. Retrieved 2020-12-05.
External links [ edit ]